Diabetes and chronic complications

15-03-2018
Secerna bolest simtomi lecenje

Diabetes has to be taken very seriously in every age because it is a metabolic disorder. It occurs when organism do not produce enough insulin or it can not be used properly. Basic parameters for making exact diagnosis and following of the disease is blood sugar level. Diabetes 2 is most often seen (in 90 % of cases).

Life for diabetes

Elevated blood sugar can be recognized by following symptoms: exhaustion, tiredness, increased thirst and urination, blurred vision and leg spasms. For low blood sugar it is usual that patient suffers from trembling, palpitations, increased sweating, anxiety and expressed hunger.

All diabetic patients have to change life style to a significant extent. Life changes are usually in diet that has to be under much greater control. Food should be chosen according to glycemic index, or advantage should be given to those with smaller amount of sugar. Glycemic index depends on sugar that contains, fibers and method of preparation. In diabetics there are increased risk for vitamin B, regarding the fact that it influences metabolism of carbohydrates. Hydration is very important for maintaining of diabetes on the same level. Adequate physical activity according to age can significantly lower danger from complications of the diabetes.

Macrovascular complications

Problems are created on large blood vessels due to diabetes are in form of aterosclerosis. If not untreated on time it can lead to stroke, myocardial infarct and gangrene. Most often complication on soleus muscle and feet. Macrovascular complications are most often cause of death in type 2 diabetic persons. Some studies showed that genetic predisposition plays an important part in the disease. It is very important that all changes that are connected to venous system are controlled timely. Visiting cardiologist and internist should be done regularly. Doctors should perform one of the most important examinations that gives insight to real conditions of arteries.  Coronarography with X ray, with radiology contrast shows coronary arteries.

Eye danger

Diabetic retinopathy is most common cause of blindness in adult persons. It occurs in both types of diabetics, but in type 1 it occurs approximately 5 years after the beginning of the disease. First stage of the diseases is nonproliferative retinopathy that gives weak eyesight, while next stage is proliferative retinopathy that causes blindness. In diabetics very often it can be seen glaucoma and cataracts.

Diabetes and renal complication

Diabetic nephropathy occurs in 30% of diabetics and usually causes renal insufficiency.

Diabetic retinopathy is often followed by diabetic nephropathy which means that diabetics with eye problems should check kidney function. Diabetic retinopathy is often followed by diabetic nephropathy which means that diabetics with eye issues have to check renal function. Disease is established first with urine check and renal ultrasound. Presence of proteins in urine is sign that is always taken seriously.

Neurological complications

Diabetic neuropathy can be peripheral and autoimmune. Most common cause of symmetrical and sensory neuropathy are changes related to hyperglycemia. Patient have feeling of loss of sensibility in hands and legs, feeling of formication, burning, and even pain and temperature changes especially in legs, while problems are more often present at night. Symetrical motore neuropathy is more rare, and is recognized  by pain and weakness in muscles, not very often accompanied by atrophy.

Atlas General Hospital is your ally in fight with diabetes and its complications. In our hospital you can make  complete diagnostic in one day of the disease without waiting. Regular doctor’s visits (to internists, cardiologists) and regular check ups help to maintain health issues under control.  If it comes to complications team of our surgeons will help you by applying most modern operative methods.

If you have any doubts regarding diabetic complications or just wish to check up your health, you will be able to do it in our hospital beginning from May 2018!