Cystoscopy is a procedure that allows a doctor to examine the mucous membrane of the bladder and the tube that transfers urine from your body (urethra). A hollow tube (cystoscope) equipped with a lens is inserted into your urethra and slowly advanced into your bladder.
Cystoscopy can be done in a day clinic, using a local anesthetic, or it can be done with sedation.
At Atlas General Hospital, cystoscopy is performed by the specialists of the ass dr sci med Uroš Babić. The cost of cystoscopy in local anesthesia is 18,000 dinars (rsd) and the price of cystoscopy with sedation is 23,000 dinars (rsd).
The type of cystoscopy you will undergo depends on the reason you perform procedure.
Why is cystoscopy performed
Cystoscopy is used to diagnose, monitor and treat conditions that affect the bladder and urethra. Your doctor may recommend a cystoscopy for the following reasons:
- To investigate the causes of signs and symptoms of the disease. These signs and symptoms may include blood in the urine, incontinence, excessive bladder activity and painful urination. Cystoscopy can also help to determine the cause of frequent urinary tract infections. However, cystoscopy is generally not done while you have an active urinary tract infection.
- To diagnoses bladder diseases (bladder cancer, bladder stones and bladder inflammation – cystitis).
- To treat bladder disease. Special tools can be pulled through the cystoscope to treat certain conditions. For example, very small bladder tumors can be removed during cystoscopy.
- To diagnoses an enlarged prostate gland. Cystoscopy can detect narrowing of the urethra where it passes through the prostate, indicating an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia).
Your doctor may perform another procedure called ureteroscopy at the same time as cystoscopy. Ureteroscopy uses a smaller device to examine canals that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
How to prepare for cystoscopy
You may need to:
- take antibiotics. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics for you to take before and after cystoscopy, especially if you have trouble coping with infections.
- wait for the bladder to empty. Your doctor may order a urine test before cystoscopy. Wait with the bladder emptied until you have an examination in case there is a need for a urine sample.
Preparation for analgesia and anesthesia
If you receive an intravenous sedative or general anesthesia during cystoscopy, plan your recovery in advance. You will have to ask someone to drive you home.
What to expect during cystoscopy
A simple ambulatory cystoscopy can take five to 15 minutes. When undergoing sedation or general anesthesia, cystoscopy takes about 15 to 30 minutes.
Cystoscopy procedure to follow this process:
-You will be asked to empty the bladder. Then you will lie on the table on your back. You will probably be positioned by placing your feet in the braces and with your knees bent.
-You may need a sedative or anesthetic. If you get a sedative, you will feel drowsy and relaxed during cystoscopy, but you will still be aware. If you receive general anesthesia, you will not be aware during the procedure. Both types of medication can be given through a vein in your hand.
-The doctor will introduce a cystoscope. A gel is applied to your urethra to prevent pain when a cystoscope is introduced. After a few minutes of waiting for the anesthetic to work, your doctor will carefully insert the cystoscope into your urethra, using the smallest possible range. Larger-scale instruments may be needed to take tissue samples or to introduce surgical tools into the bladder.
Your doctor will examine your urethra and bladder. The cystoscope has a lens at the end that works like a telescope to enlarge the internal surfaces of the urethra and bladder. Your doctor may place a special video camera over the lens to reproduce the images on screen.
Your bladder will be filled with sterile solution. The solution enlarges (inflates) the bladder and allows your doctor to see the inside better. As the bladder fills up, you may feel the urge to urinate. You will be encouraged to do so when the process is completed.
Tissue samples may be taken. The physician can take tissue samples for laboratory testing or perform various other procedures during cystoscopy.
What to expect after cystoscopy
You will be able to continue your daily routine. If you have been sedated or under general anesthesia, you will be asked to stay in the hospital for a short time until full recovery.
After cystoscopy, side effects can occur, such as:
- Bleeding from the urethra, which may look bright pink in urine or on toilet paper.
- Burning while urinating
- Frequent urination for the next day or two days
In order to feel better you can:
- Hold a warm, damp cloth over the opening to your bladder to relieve pain. Repeat if needed.
- Take a hot bath. However, your doctor may ask you to avoid swimming. Ask your doctor if you have any doubts.
- Drink water. Bladder flushing can reduce irritation. Try to drink up to 500 milliliters of water every hour for the first two hours after cystoscopy.
Call your doctor if you have any discomfort after cystoscopy.
Cystoscopy complications may include:
- Rarely, bacteria can enter the urinary tract during cystoscopy, causing infection. To prevent infection, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics before and after cystoscopy. Risk factors for developing urinary tract infection after cystoscopy include age, smoking, and unusual anatomy in your urinary tract.
- Cystoscopy can cause blood in your urine. Serious bleeding rarely occurs.
- Abdominal pain and burning sensation during urination may occur. These symptoms are generally mild and gradually decrease after the procedure.
Signs and symptoms of more serious complications
Call your doctor or go to the nearest emergency room if you have:
- Inability to urinate after cystoscopy
- Bright red blood or blood clots in the urine
- Abdominal pain and nausea
- Temperature higher than 38.5 C
- Pain or burning while urinating for more than two days
Your doctor will be able to discuss the results immediately after your procedure, or they may have to wait if your cystoscopy involved tissue collection (biopsy) for bladder tumor testing, that sample will be sent to the lab. When the tests are completed, your doctor will tell you the results.
Call our call center on 011 785 88 88 and we will be happy to answer all your questions.
The price for cystoscopy in local anesthesia is 18,000 dinars and the price for cystoscopy with sedation is 23,000 rsd.